Cystoscopy (endoscopy of the bladder) is performed when a horse shows signs of abnormal urination. This may include blood in the urine, straining to urinate or incontinence (dribbling). Whilst bladder problems are not common in the horse, conditions such as bladder stones, sabulous cystitis (accumulation of large amounts of irritant material in the bladder) and haematuria (blood in the urine) do occur and are most easily diagnosed by direct visualisation of the inside of the bladder. This procedure is simple to perform and is well tolerated by horses.

 

 

                

                Left: endoscopic view of a typical equine bladder stone

                Right: endoscopic view of bladder inflammation due to cystitis